Kadapa (formerly known as Cuddapah) is a city in the Rayalseema region of the south-central part of Andhra Pradesh, India. It is the district headquarters of YSR Kadapa district. As of 2011 Census of India, the city had a population of 344,078. It is located 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) south of the Penna River. The city is surrounded on three sides by the Nallamala and Palakonda hills lying on the tectonic landscape between the Eastern and Western ghats. Black and Red ferrous soils occupy the region. The city is nicknamed "Gadapa" ('threshold') since it is the gateway from the west to the sacred hills of Tirumala.
The city's name originated from the Telugu word "Gadapa" meaning threshold or gate. It acquired this name with its relation to the Tirumala Hills; one had to pass through Cuddapah in olden days to reach Tirumala Hills. In old Telugu the word Kadapa meant a threshold which in modern standard Telugu is evolved to gadapa while the city's name retained the old flavour. It was spelled "Cuddapah" but was changed to "Kadapa" on 19 August 2005 to reflect the local pronunciation of the name.
Kadapa is located at 14.47°N 78.82°E about 412 km from Hyderabad, in the Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh. The city is situated in the Bugga or Ralla Vanka bordered by the Palakondas to the south and to the east by a patch of hills casting north for the Lankamalas on Penna's other side. It has an average elevation of 138 metres (452 ft). The hills of western and eastern ghats stand on either sides, shielding it from the extreme winds of summer and winter
Kadapa has a tropical wet and dry climate characterised by year round high temperatures. It has a record of reaching more than 50 degree Celsius. Summers are especially uncomfortable with hot and humid climate. During this time temperatures range from a minimum of 34 °C and can rise up to a maximum of 40 °C. Temperatures are range in the mid thirties during the day. Humidity is around 75% during the summer months. Monsoon season brings substantial rain to the area. Kadapa gets rainfall from both the South west monsoon as well as the North East Monsoon. June to October is usually the monsoon. Winters are comparatively milder and the temperatures are lower after the onset of the monsoons. During this time the temperatures range from a maximum of 25 °C and can rise up to a maximum of 35 °C. Humidity is much lower during the winter season. Winter season is the best time to visit the place.
Kadapa is one of the largest and fastest developing cities in Andhra Pradesh. As per the 1991 census the population of the town was 1,21,463. It didn't increase much as per the 2001 census which recorded 1,26,505 lakhs for 20 wards population with an average decadal growth rate of 0.36 per cent. Later it was converted to a Municipal Corporation in 2005. As per provisional data of 2011 census, Kadapa urban agglomeration has a population of 344,078, out of which males are 172,969 and females are 171,109. The literacy rate is 79.34 per cent. The urban population has 65% Hindus, 32% Muslims and 3% Christians.
Telugu is the official and largest spoken language in the city. Most of the Muslims speak Urdu. Hindi is also spoken in many areas of the city among North Indian traders. English is gaining popularity day by day in the city due to the development.
The Kadapa Municipal Corporation oversees the civic needs of the city and was constituted in the year 2005. It has 50 municipal wards represented by a corporator through direct election, who in turn elects the Mayor. The District court is located in the city itself.
The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools of the School Education Departmentof the state. The medium of instruction followed by different schools are English, Telugu.
There are good number of schools, degree colleges, engineering colleges and universities. These includes Kandula Srinivasa Reddy Memorial College of Engineering, Global College Of Engineering & Technology, Kadapa, Hyderabad Public School, Kadapa, Yogi Vemana University, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Kadapa
Kadapa has good road connectivity. NH-40 passes through the city and connects it with Kurnool and Chittoor. APSRTC provides bus services to various destinations of the Kadapa district and other cities of the state like Hyderabad, Vijayawada, Vishakhapatnam, Rajahmundry, Vellore, Tirupati, and also the capitals of the neighbouring states Bangalore and Chennai. The city has a total road length of 803.84 km.
Kadapa has its own railway station in the city. The Mumbai-Chennai line which happens to be one of the busiest lines in the south central region passes through Kadapa railway station. It is one of the A category railway station in south central railway under Guntakal railway division.